Система научно-технического перевода (пример перевода программой PROMT Гигант)

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Работа к зачету по СНТП

студента 1-го курса факультета ВМК (заочное отделение)

Пылова А.Н.


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Исходный текст 3

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Исходный текст

Computer personnel.
Computer manufacture

There are two overall stages in the manufacture of computers, namely original equipment manufacture, and the design and assembly of complete computer systems.

Integrated circuits are designed and developed by electronics engineers, and fabricated by highly skilled workers using sophisticated equipment. Computers are used in the design, manufacture and testing of these circuits.

The complete process of designing and constructing a computer is extremely complex, and involves the work of a number of people. The stages are generally as described in the following sections.

Most computer manufactures have a research department, investigating new computer architectures, new hardware devices, new software technics and new computer applications. Scientists, research engineers and technicians, as well as highly skilled software engineers are among the staff of these departments. A more detailed discussion of computing researches to be found in Section 32.5.

The overall design of a new computer, or series of computers, Is in the hands of computer architects. Modern computers are designed from both hardware and the software point of view. Accordingly, systems programmers, who write the systems software for the computer, are also involved in the design process.

Highly skilled production workers are responsible for the various stages of construction and assembly of units. Production lines are not used. Generally, a team of workers is assigned to take a unit through all stages of construction and exhaustive testing.

One of the highest paid job in computing is that of computer salesman. Salesmen operate in an intensely competitive environment, where their level of pay depends to some extent on their sales figures. A process of saling a large computer system can take several months.

Field engineers are responsible for the installation and commissioning of new computer units, and the maintenance and repair of systems in operation. With many computers running 24 hours a day, this type of work often involves calls at unsocial hours.

A data processing department.

Traditionally, an organization, which uses a computer, has a data processing department, containing all the staff who work directly with the computer. A typical reported structure for a large data processing department is shown in Figure 31.1. Other departments and individuals in an organization relate to the data processing department as users of the computing equipment. The description of the data processing department given here applies in particular to banks, insurance companies, airlines and many central and local government departments.

In overall charge of a data processing departments a data processing manager. Responsibilities of a data processing manager include formulation of policy, approval of projects, staff requirements, staff recruitment and maintaining the relationship of the department with the rest of the company.

The work of a data processing department has two aspects, namely the program development aspect, and the operations aspect. On the program development side, systems analysis are responsible for steering each project through the data processing cycle.

Programmers, more properly called application programmers in this context, are responsible for writing , correcting and maintaining programs, and producing various items of documentation, explaining how programs are used.

On the operation side, there is an operations manager in charge of scheduling the use of the computer, arranging for maintenance and ordering supplies. A team of operators man the computer room, often work in shifts under shift leaders.

The flow of data to and from the computer is sometimes supervised by data controllers, who ensure that the right data is available at the right time. Data entry staff operate data entry terminals to keep up the supply of data to the computer. In many large computer systems, file librariance are responsible for the large numbers of magnetic tapes and magnetic disks used.

If the computer supports a database, then a database administrator is in charge of this aspect of the work. If a data communication network is used, this is often under the overall charge of a network administrator.

In many organizations, computers have become such an integral part of their operations that a separate data processing departments not required. The majority of the workers in such organizations make some use of the computer. Programming and systems design is often contracted out to software houses, or standard software packages are purchased.

An expanding computer application in this category is word processing. In many modern offices, all correspondence, contracts and similar work Is done on word processing systems. Most of the people working in these offices use a word processing workstation to some extent.

Situated between computer manufactures and computer users are software houses, or computer service bureau. These provide a wide range of services, including consultancy on computer projects, designing software and supplying complete computer systems.

Many software houses have extremely flexible working arrangements, falling broadly under the heading of software engineering. Most of their workers are skilled in a variety o areas, including systems and applications programming, systems analyses, project management and computer design. A team of workers is assigned to each project which is undertaken. Work is shared among the members of the team according to their interests, capabilities and experience. There is no strict demarcation in jobs. When a project has been completed, the team is disbanded. Workers are assigned to their projects.

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